India’s Chandrayaan-3 Mission Reaches Lunar Orbit

Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) rocket carrying the Chandrayaan-3 spacecraft lifting off from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre in Sriharikota
TOPSHOT - This screen grab made from video footage from ISRO via AFPTV taken on July 14, 2023 shows an Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) rocket carrying the Chandrayaan-3 spacecraft lifting off from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre in Sriharikota, an island off the coast of southern Andhra Pradesh state. India on July 14 launched a rocket seeking to land an unmanned spacecraft on the surface of the Moon, a live feed showed, its second attempt to become only the fourth country to do so. (Photo by various sources / AFP) (Photo by -/ISRO/AFPTV/AFP via Getty Images)

India’s space agency, the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO), is on the verge of achieving a significant milestone in space exploration. Chandrayaan-3, the country’s latest lunar mission, has successfully entered the Moon’s orbit, marking a crucial step towards its ambitious goal of a soft landing near the lunar South Pole. This mission comes after the lessons learned from Chandrayaan-2 and showcases India’s determination to explore and unlock the secrets of the Moon.

The Chandrayaan-3 mission consists of a lander, a rover, and a propulsion module. The lander will carry the rover to the Moon’s surface, and the rover will then explore the surrounding area. The lander and rover will be powered by solar energy.

The Chandrayaan-3 mission is a significant milestone for India’s space program. It is the first Indian mission to attempt to land on the Moon’s South Pole, and it is also the first Indian mission to carry a lunar rover.

Chandrayaan-3’s Journey to Lunar Orbit:

Launched on July 14, Chandrayaan-3 embarked on a journey spanning more than two weeks, performing four orbit-raising maneuvers to reach the translunar orbit. The spacecraft then entered the lunar orbit on Saturday, August 5, making a historic statement of its presence around the Moon. This achievement reflects India’s increasing capabilities in space missions and highlights the scientific community’s anticipation of the groundbreaking discoveries the mission is set to deliver.

Upcoming Lunar Orbit Maneuvers:

With the spacecraft now in the Moon’s orbit, Chandrayaan-3 is preparing for a series of orbit maneuvers to gradually reduce its speed and precisely position itself for a soft landing on the lunar surface. These delicate maneuvers are meticulously planned and executed with exceptional precision. The next crucial maneuver is scheduled for August 6, which will further refine Chandrayaan-3’s trajectory as it inches closer to the Moon’s surface.

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The Road to a Lunar South Pole Landing:

The lunar South Pole is a region of great scientific interest due to its unique geography and potential water ice deposits in permanently shadowed areas. Chandrayaan-3’s primary landing site is located in the vicinity of the lunar South Pole, making it the first mission to attempt a landing at such a low latitude. If successful, India will become only the fourth country in the world to achieve a lunar landing, following in the footsteps of the United States, the former Soviet Union, and China.

Chandrayaan-3 Mission:
โ€œMOX, ISTRAC, this is Chandrayaan-3. I am feeling lunar gravity ๐ŸŒ–โ€

Chandrayaan-3 has been successfully inserted into the lunar orbit.

A retro-burning at the Perilune was commanded from the Mission Operations Complex (MOX), ISTRAC, Bengaluru.

The nextโ€ฆ

โ€” ISRO (@isro) August 5, 2023

Enhanced Software and Mission Objectives:

Learnings from the Chandrayaan-2 mission, which faced challenges during its landing attempt in 2019, have driven the enhancements to Chandrayaan-3’s software. ISRO has meticulously studied the data from the previous mission, conducted simulations, and rectified glitches to ensure a safe landing this time. This focus on continuous improvement and meticulous preparation exemplifies ISRO’s commitment to mission success and scientific advancement.

Mission Objectives: Unveiling Lunar Mysteries:

The primary objective of Chandrayaan-3 is to demonstrate a safe landing on the lunar surface, validating the engineering and technological capabilities of ISRO. Beyond this, the mission aims to deploy the Vikram lander and Pragyan rover, each equipped with specialized instruments for in-situ science experiments. These experiments will provide valuable insights into the Moon’s physical characteristics, atmosphere, and potential tectonic activities, contributing significantly to our understanding of Earth’s closest celestial neighbor.

The scientific goals of the Chandrayaan-3 mission include:

  • To study the geology, composition, and temperature of the Moon’s South Pole.
  • To search for water ice and other resources.
  • To study the Moon’s magnetic field and gravity.
  • To study the Moon’s space environment.

Exploring the Lunar South Pole:

The lunar South Pole remains relatively unexplored, and scientists believe that areas in permanent shadow hold the potential for water presence. By focusing on this region, Chandrayaan-3 aims to contribute significantly to our understanding of the Moon’s history, geology, and potential resources. The mission’s findings will not only enrich lunar science but also serve as a stepping stone for future human exploration and colonization efforts.

India’s Prowess in Space Exploration:

Chandrayaan-3 is a testament to India’s growing prowess in space exploration and its commitment to pushing the boundaries of human knowledge. The country’s first lunar mission, Chandrayaan-1, was launched in 2008 and made significant discoveries, including the presence of water molecules on the lunar surface. Now, with Chandrayaan-3, India is poised to establish its place among the elite group of nations capable of landing on the Moon.

What are the challenges of landing on the Moon’s South Pole?

Landing on the Moon’s South Pole is a challenging task for a number of reasons. First, the South Pole is a very cold and dark region. Second, the South Pole is covered in a thick layer of regolith, which is loose lunar soil. Third, the South Pole has a number of craters and mountains, which can make it difficult to find a safe landing site.

What happens next for the Chandrayaan-3 mission?

The Chandrayaan-3 mission will now spend several weeks orbiting the Moon. During this time, the ISRO will test the spacecraft’s systems and prepare for the landing. The landing is scheduled for September 23, 2023.

If the landing is successful, the Chandrayaan-3 rover will deploy and begin exploring the Moon’s South Pole. The rover will collect data for two lunar days, which is equivalent to about 28 Earth days.

The Chandrayaan-3 mission is an ambitious and exciting mission. It is a testament to India’s growing space capabilities and its commitment to scientific exploration.


As Chandrayaan-3 continues its journey towards a historic soft landing, the world eagerly watches India’s ambitious space mission. This endeavor not only demonstrates India’s technological prowess but also reiterates its commitment to scientific exploration and unlocking the mysteries of the Moon. If successful, Chandrayaan-3 will pave the way for future lunar missions, inspire a new generation of scientists, and propel India’s space program to even greater heights. The historic landing near the lunar South Pole will mark a moment of pride and achievement for India, showcasing the nation’s capabilities in space exploration on the global stage.


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